People - Richard Maddock

Richard Maddock, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry

1982 - MD - University of California, Davis
1975 - MS - University of California, Davis - Physiology
1970 - BA - University of California, Davis - Psychology

Research Interests
The most general hypothesis that guides research in my laboratory is that emotional disorders arise from dysfunction of regulatory mechanisms that normally govern emotional processes. Current studies are focused on constraining and testing models in which disturbances of brain metabolism have a causal role in anxiety and mood disorders. Specifically, we are using dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to examine the possible role of disturbances in brain lactate and pH regulation in the neurobiological vulnerability to Panic Disorder. Neural activation, physical exercise and lactate infusions all lead to changes in brain lactate metabolism and thus cause transient changes in pH of brain ECF. Recent animal studies demonstrate the central role of brain ECF pH in both innate and conditioned fear. In my laboratory, we use MRS to study the relationship between abnormal brain lactate dynamics and anxiety symptoms in panic disorder.

A second focus of research arises from neuropathological evidence and current circuit models that predict a key role for abnormal brain GABA metabolism in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Ongoing studies use MRS to test predictions about the involvement of cortical GABA in the pathogenesis and treatment of these conditions.

Representative Publications

Maddock, R.J. The problem of spurious correlation between pairs of brain metabolite values measured in the same voxel with MRS. JAMA Psychiatry, 71:338-9, 2014. link

Maddock, R.J., Buonocore, M.H., Miller, A.R., Yoon, J.H., Soosman, S.K., Unruh, A.M. Abnormal activity-dependent brain lactate and glutamate+glutamine responses in panic disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 73(11): 1111-1119, 2013. link

Maddock, R.J., Buonocore, M.H. MR spectroscopic studies of the brain in psychiatric disorders. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1007/7854_2011_197, epublished Feb. 1, 2012. pdf

Maddock, R.J., Casazza, G.A., Buonocore, M.H., Tanase, C. Vigorous exercise increases brain lactate and Glx (glutamate+glutamine): A dynamic 1H-MRS study. NeuroImage, 2011; 57(4): 1324-1330. link

Esquivel, G., Schruers, K.R., Maddock, R.J., Colasanti, A., Griez, E.J. Acids in the brain: A factor in panic? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24:639-47, 2010. pdf

Yoon, J.H., Maddock, R.J., Rokem, A.S., Silver, M.A., Minzenberg, M.J., Ragland, J.D., Carter, C.S. GABA concentration is reduced in visual cortex in schizophrenia and correlates with orientation-specific surround suppression. Journal of Neuroscience, 30:3777-81, 2010. pdf

Maddock, R.J., Frein, S.T. Reduced memory for the spatial and temporal context of unpleasant words. Cognition and Emotion, 23:96-117, 2009. pdf

Maddock, R.J., Buonocore, M.H., Copeland, L.E., Richards, A.L. Elevated brain lactate responses to neural activation in panic disorder: A dynamic 1H-MRS study. Molecular Psychiatry, 14: 537-545, 2009. pdf

Maddock RJ, Buonocore MH. Measuring Brain Lactate at Rest and during Visual Stimulation: Reply to Sijens and Oudkerk. Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 162:175-179, 2008.

Garrett AS, Maddock RJ. Separating subjective emotion from the perception of emotion-inducing stimuli: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 33:263-74, 2006.

Maddock RJ, Buonocore MH, Lavoie SP, Copeland LE, Kile SJ, Richards AL, Ryan JM (2006). Brain lactate responses during visual stimulation in fasting and hyperglycemic subjects: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 1.5 Tesla. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 148:47-54. pdf

Maddock, R.J., Buonocore, M.H., Kile, S.J., Garrett, A.S. (2003). Brain regions showing increased activation by threat-related words in panic disorder. Neuroreport, 14:325-8. pdf

Maddock, RJ, Garrett, AS and Buonocore MH (2003). Posterior cingulate cortex activation by emotional words: fMRI evidence from a valence decision task. Human Brain Mapping, 18(1):30-41. pdf set of 256 matched emotional and neutral words

Rita Hargrave, Richard J. Maddock, Valerie Stone (2002). Impaired recognition of facial expressions of emotion in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 14(1):64-71. pdf

Garrett, A.S., Maddock, R.J. (2001). Time course of the subjective emotional response to aversive pictures: relevance to fMRI studies. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 108:39-48. pdf

Maddock, RJ, Garrett, AS and Buonocore MH (2001). Remembering familiar people: the posterior cingulate cortex and autobiographical memory retrieval. Neuroscience, 104(3):667-76. pdf

Richard J. Maddock (2001). The lactic acid response to alkalosis in panic disorder: an integrative review. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 13(1):22-34. pdf

Maddock RJ. (1999). The retrosplenial cortex and emotion: new insights from functional neuroimaging of the human brain. Trends in Neurosciences, 22:310-316. pdf

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